FS1106:          An Analysis of Managerial Control Versus Other Operational Indicators of Performance        

Speaker:           LCDR Adam Kramer  

Email:               adam_kramer@nps.gov



Does having written policies, training employees on those policies and then verifying that they are followed really have an effect on restaurant operations?  The National Park Service evaluated the level of Policies, Training and Verification and compared it against other indicators of performance, such as a score, numbers of violations, and compliance with the FDA risk factors.  The findings from the evaluation can help you develop and evaluate your own active managerial control program.




Various indicators of safe food handling have been used for rating food facilities.  These have ranged from simple counts of violations to a weighted scoring system based on violations to measuring the level of active managerial control.  One method of measuring the level of control has been to evaluate the level of the Policies, Training, and Verification (PTV) for specific foodborne illness risk factors implemented by an establishment.  This study's objective was to assess the relationship between PTV and alternate indicators of performance.


Public Health Consultants (PHC) with the National Park Service were asked to evaluate the level of PTV in restaurants and snack bars during routine food safety evaluations.  Participation by the PHC was not mandatory and the method of obtaining the level of PTV was left up to the PHC.  This was accomplished during 143 evaluations of 98 facilities. The level of PTV was evaluated using an anchored likert scale (1-5 scale) for each risk factor and then averaged into an index score.   The scores were regressed against other operational indicators of performance utilizing Generalized Estimating Equations.


Positive associations were found with the following FDA risk factors: protection from contamination (x2=10.42, p=0.0012); handling potentially hazardous food (x2=7.75, p=0.0054); and chemical handling (x2=4.31, p=0.0379).  Negative associations were detected for: operational Score (x2=11.12, p=0.0009) (using a scale from 0 and increasing); total number of marked violations (x2=39.57, p<0.0001); total number of marked priority violations (x2=6.45, p=0.0111); total number of marked priority foundation violations (x2=13.95, p=0.0002); and total number of marked repeated violations (x2=7.67, p=0.0056). No significant associations were found for the other FDA Risk factors or the total number of marked core violations.


The study found that as the level of control increased, restaurants and snack bars were more often in compliance with the some of the FDA risk factors or there was no significant effect with the remaining factors.  It also indicated that as the level of control increased the weighted operational score improved and there was a decrease in the total number of: Violations; Priority violations; Priority foundation violations; and repeated violations.